Publication: Comparative analysis of sodium coupled vitamin C transporter 2 in human osteoarthritis grade 1 and grade 3 tissues.


Blackburn AR 2nd, Hamrick MW, Chutkan N, Sangani R, Waller JL, Corpe R, Prasad PD, Isales CM, Ganapathy V, Fulzele S. Comparative analysis of sodium coupled vitamin C transporter 2 in human osteoarthritis grade 1 and grade 3 tissues. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Jan 8;15(1):9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:24401033




Nutrient levels are known to influence the development of osteoarthritis (OA), presumably by modulating levels of matrix biosynthesis and degradation. These processes may be affected by ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant which acts as a cofactor for numerous biochemical reactions and is essential for post-translational modifications of collagen. In this study we examined the expression of SVCT2, the only known Sodium coupled vitamin C transporter isoform present in articular cartilage, in human articular cartilage explants derived from both normal and osteoarthritis articular cartilage.


OA1 and OA3 human articular cartilage was carefully dissected and macroscopically graded for degeneration via the Collins scale. The tissue samples were histologically examined by Hematoxylin and Eosin and Safranin O and Fast Green staining. SVCT2 expression analysis was performed at mRNA level by quantitative real time PCR and at a protein level by immunohistochemistry.


Our quantitative real time PCR showed marked variation in the expression of SVCT2 in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage. SVCT2 expression was significantly down-regulated (p = 0.0001) in the Collins grade 3 (OA3) compared to Collins grade 1 (OA1) tissue. Furthermore, slides stained with fluorescent antibodies to SVCT2 demonstrated greatly reduced fluorescence for the SVCT2 transporter on the chondrocyte plasma membrane in the osteoarthritic tissue samples CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the expression of SVCT2 transporter is significantly altered in human osteoarthritic tissues (OA3). The modulation of this transporter could therefore potentially influence the prevention, management and treatment of osteoarthritis.

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Heather Hopkins

My work explores the relationship between the universality of myth and life as performance.

With influences as diverse as Machiavelli and Joni Mitchell, new combinations are generated from both explicit and implicit meanings.

Ever since I was a teenager I have been fascinated by the essential unreality of the zeitgeist. What starts out as yearning soon becomes corroded into a manifesto of professional courtesy, leaving only a sense of what could have been and the dawn of a new reality.

As momentary replicas become clarified through emergent and repetitive practice, the viewer is left with an epitaph for the outposts of our culture.

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Written by Heather Hopkins

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